Câu hỏi phỏng vấn [Global] NoSQL
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What do you understand by NoSQL databases? Explain

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NoSQL databases, also known as "Not Only SQL" or "non-relational" databases, are a category of database management systems that provide a mechanism for storage and retrieval of data that is modeled in means other than the tabular relations used in relational databases. Unlike traditional SQL databases, which use structured tables with predefined schemas, NoSQL databases use flexible data models that can handle unstructured, semi-structured, and structured data.

Key Characteristics of NoSQL Databases

  1. Flexible Schema: NoSQL databases do not require a fixed schema, allowing for dynamic changes to the data structure without the need for schema migrations. This flexibility is particularly useful for applications with evolving data models or where the data is not uniform[1][3][8].

  2. Horizontal Scalability: NoSQL databases are designed to scale out by adding more servers to a distributed system, rather than scaling up by adding more resources to a single server. This horizontal scalability makes them well-suited for handling large volumes of data and high-velocity data streams[1][3][8].

  3. Variety of Data Models: NoSQL databases support various data models, including:

    • Document Stores: Store data in documents, typically JSON or BSON, which can contain nested structures. Examples include MongoDB and CouchDB[2][5][9].
    • Key-Value Stores: Store data as key-value pairs, where each key is unique. Examples include Redis and Amazon DynamoDB[2][5][9].
    • Column-Family Stores: Store data in columns rather than rows, optimized for read and write operations on large datasets. Examples include Apache Cassandra and HBase[2][5][9].
    • Graph Databases: Store data in nodes and edges, representing entities and their relationships. Examples include Neo4j and Amazon Neptune[2][5][9].
  4. High Performance and Availability: NoSQL databases are optimized for high performance, often providing faster read and write operations compared to traditional relational databases. They also offer high availability through data replication and distribution across multiple nodes[3][8][13].

  5. Eventual Consistency: Many NoSQL databases adopt an "eventual consistency" model, where updates to the database are propagated to all nodes eventually, rather than immediately. This approach prioritizes availability and partition tolerance over immediate consistency[4][7][11].

Advantages of NoSQL Databases

  • Scalability: Easily scale horizontally to accommodate growing data and user loads[1][3][8].
  • Flexibility: Handle diverse data types and structures without requiring a fixed schema[1][3][8].
  • Performance: Optimized for high-speed data access and processing, especially for large datasets[3][8][13].
  • Developer-Friendly: Simplifies deve...


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